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(PHP Extension) JWE Using General JWE JSON Serialization

This example duplicates the example A.4 in RFC 7516 for JSON Web Encryption (JWE).

This example demonstrates the capability for encrypting the same plaintext to multiple recipients. Two recipients are present in this example.

Note: This example requires Chilkat v9.5.0.66 or greater.

Chilkat PHP Downloads

PHP Extension for Windows, Linux, MacOS,
Alpine Linux, Solaris

<?php

// The version number (9_5_0) should match version of the Chilkat extension used, omitting the micro-version number.
// For example, if using Chilkat v9.5.0.48, then include as shown here:
include("chilkat_9_5_0.php");

// This requires the Chilkat API to have been previously unlocked.
// See Global Unlock Sample for sample code.

// Note: This example requires Chilkat v9.5.0.66 or greater.

$plaintext = 'Live long and prosper.';

$jwe = new CkJwe();

// First build the JWE Protected Header: {"enc":"A128CBC-HS256"}
$jweProtHdr = new CkJsonObject();
$jweProtHdr->AppendString('enc','A128CBC-HS256');
$jwe->SetProtectedHeader($jweProtHdr);

// The first recipient uses the RSAES-PKCS1-v1_5 algorithm to encrypt
// the CEK.  The second uses AES Key Wrap to encrypt the CEK.  Key ID
// values are supplied for both keys.  The two JWE Per-Recipient
// Unprotected Header values used to represent these algorithms and key
// IDs are:
// 
//      {"alg":"RSA1_5","kid":"2011-04-29"}
// 
// and
// 
//      {"alg":"A128KW","kid":"7"}

$jweRecipientHdr1 = new CkJsonObject();
$jweRecipientHdr1->AppendString('alg','RSA1_5');
$jweRecipientHdr1->AppendString('kid','2011-04-29');
$recipientIndex = 0;
$jwe->SetRecipientHeader($recipientIndex,$jweRecipientHdr1);

$jweRecipientHdr2 = new CkJsonObject();
$jweRecipientHdr2->AppendString('alg','A128KW');
$jweRecipientHdr2->AppendString('kid','7');
$recipientIndex = 1;
$jwe->SetRecipientHeader($recipientIndex,$jweRecipientHdr2);

// Set the Shared Unprotected Header:  {"jku":"https://server.example.com/keys.jwks"}
$jweUnprotHdr = new CkJsonObject();
$jweUnprotHdr->AppendString('jku','https://server.example.com/keys.jwks');
$jwe->SetUnprotectedHeader($jweUnprotHdr);

// Note: The intent of specifying a "kid" (an acronym for "Key ID") is that
// the software would somehow download the keys.jwks from https://server.example.com/keys.jwks,
// and would select the key (whatever format it may be, such as RSA, or an AES key wrap key, etc.),
// and then automatically use it. 

// This example keeps the "kid" and "jku" in their respective headers, but does not actually fetch
// the keys from some URL.  We'll just provide the keys directly..

// Recipient 0 uses this RSA key:
$sbJwk = new CkStringBuilder();
$sbJwk->Append('{\'kty\':\'RSA\',');
$sbJwk->Append('\'n\':\'sXchDaQebHnPiGvyDOAT4saGEUetSyo9MKLOoWFsueri23bOdgWp4Dy1Wl');
$sbJwk->Append('UzewbgBHod5pcM9H95GQRV3JDXboIRROSBigeC5yjU1hGzHHyXss8UDpre');
$sbJwk->Append('cbAYxknTcQkhslANGRUZmdTOQ5qTRsLAt6BTYuyvVRdhS8exSZEy_c4gs_');
$sbJwk->Append('7svlJJQ4H9_NxsiIoLwAEk7-Q3UXERGYw_75IDrGA84-lA_-Ct4eTlXHBI');
$sbJwk->Append('Y2EaV7t7LjJaynVJCpkv4LKjTTAumiGUIuQhrNhZLuF_RJLqHpM2kgWFLU');
$sbJwk->Append('7-VTdL1VbC2tejvcI2BlMkEpk1BzBZI0KQB0GaDWFLN-aEAw3vRw\',');
$sbJwk->Append('\'e\':\'AQAB\',');
$sbJwk->Append('\'d\':\'VFCWOqXr8nvZNyaaJLXdnNPXZKRaWCjkU5Q2egQQpTBMwhprMzWzpR8Sxq');
$sbJwk->Append('1OPThh_J6MUD8Z35wky9b8eEO0pwNS8xlh1lOFRRBoNqDIKVOku0aZb-ry');
$sbJwk->Append('nq8cxjDTLZQ6Fz7jSjR1Klop-YKaUHc9GsEofQqYruPhzSA-QgajZGPbE_');
$sbJwk->Append('0ZaVDJHfyd7UUBUKunFMScbflYAAOYJqVIVwaYR5zWEEceUjNnTNo_CVSj');
$sbJwk->Append('-VvXLO5VZfCUAVLgW4dpf1SrtZjSt34YLsRarSb127reG_DUwg9Ch-Kyvj');
$sbJwk->Append('T1SkHgUWRVGcyly7uvVGRSDwsXypdrNinPA4jlhoNdizK2zF2CWQ\',');
$sbJwk->Append('\'p\':\'9gY2w6I6S6L0juEKsbeDAwpd9WMfgqFoeA9vEyEUuk4kLwBKcoe1x4HG68');
$sbJwk->Append('ik918hdDSE9vDQSccA3xXHOAFOPJ8R9EeIAbTi1VwBYnbTp87X-xcPWlEP');
$sbJwk->Append('krdoUKW60tgs1aNd_Nnc9LEVVPMS390zbFxt8TN_biaBgelNgbC95sM\',');
$sbJwk->Append('\'q\':\'uKlCKvKv_ZJMVcdIs5vVSU_6cPtYI1ljWytExV_skstvRSNi9r66jdd9-y');
$sbJwk->Append('BhVfuG4shsp2j7rGnIio901RBeHo6TPKWVVykPu1iYhQXw1jIABfw-MVsN');
$sbJwk->Append('-3bQ76WLdt2SDxsHs7q7zPyUyHXmps7ycZ5c72wGkUwNOjYelmkiNS0\',');
$sbJwk->Append('\'dp\':\'w0kZbV63cVRvVX6yk3C8cMxo2qCM4Y8nsq1lmMSYhG4EcL6FWbX5h9yuv');
$sbJwk->Append('ngs4iLEFk6eALoUS4vIWEwcL4txw9LsWH_zKI-hwoReoP77cOdSL4AVcra');
$sbJwk->Append('Hawlkpyd2TWjE5evgbhWtOxnZee3cXJBkAi64Ik6jZxbvk-RR3pEhnCs\',');
$sbJwk->Append('\'dq\':\'o_8V14SezckO6CNLKs_btPdFiO9_kC1DsuUTd2LAfIIVeMZ7jn1Gus_Ff');
$sbJwk->Append('7B7IVx3p5KuBGOVF8L-qifLb6nQnLysgHDh132NDioZkhH7mI7hPG-PYE_');
$sbJwk->Append('odApKdnqECHWw0J-F0JWnUd6D2B_1TvF9mXA2Qx-iGYn8OVV1Bsmp6qU\',');
$sbJwk->Append('\'qi\':\'eNho5yRBEBxhGBtQRww9QirZsB66TrfFReG_CcteI1aCneT0ELGhYlRlC');
$sbJwk->Append('tUkTRclIfuEPmNsNDPbLoLqqCVznFbvdB7x-Tl-m0l_eFTj2KiqwGqE9PZ');
$sbJwk->Append('B9nNTwMVvH3VRRSLWACvPnSiwP8N5Usy-WRXS-V7TbpxIhvepTfE0NNo\'');
$sbJwk->Append('}');

// Load this JWK into a Chilkat private key object.
$rsaPrivKey = new CkPrivateKey();
$success = $rsaPrivKey->LoadJwk($sbJwk->getAsString());
if ($success != true) {
    print $rsaPrivKey->lastErrorText() . "\n";
    exit;
}

// Get the public key for encryption.  (The RSA private key is used for decryption.)
// rsaPubKey is a CkPublicKey
$rsaPubKey = $rsaPrivKey->GetPublicKey();
$recipientIndex = 0;
$jwe->SetPublicKey($recipientIndex,$rsaPubKey);

// Recipient 1 uses AES Key Wrap
$aesWrappingKey = 'GawgguFyGrWKav7AX4VKUg';
$recipientIndex = 1;
$jwe->SetWrappingKey($recipientIndex,$aesWrappingKey,'base64url');

// OK.. everything has been specified.
// Now encrypt.  Chilkat will use the general JSON serialization because it is only
// possible serializationto use given there are multiple recipients. 
$strJwe = $jwe->encrypt($plaintext,'utf-8');
if ($jwe->get_LastMethodSuccess() != true) {
    print $jwe->lastErrorText() . "\n";
    exit;
}

// The strJwe is in the most compact form possible (a single line).
// Let's load it into a JSON object and examine in a non-compact pretty-printed format:
$jsonTemp = new CkJsonObject();
$jsonTemp->Load($strJwe);
$jsonTemp->put_EmitCompact(false);
print $jsonTemp->emit() . "\n";

// The JWE looks like this:
// (Note: Because of random values used in the encryption process, your encrypted results will be different.)

// 	{ 
// 	  "protected": "eyJlbmMiOiJBMTI4Q0JDLUhTMjU2In0",
// 	  "unprotected": { 
// 	    "jku": "https://server.example.com/keys.jwks"
// 	  },
// 	  "recipients": [
// 	    { 
// 	      "header": { 
// 	        "alg": "RSA1_5",
// 	        "kid": "2011-04-29"
// 	      },
// 	      "encrypted_key": "WlUggejR-vStJVNKgjG2mQrVv74aga1FFutT8E-n-yJEOTsOVnGjhj1NW_Snd9DqHAhFrc7NEvKCFplKWGnusBZxxjm1JpdUa0MIpkGmncJHQQdfm21vcbEUbDmfqVY79SnEis3tih1D3qmyp_Bxti4byDAHJIOJv_cj0Sx8oHZzgGtOLjtHsydyo1MtBIqI0w86i_uhUuraihZ3ngj67YZ6uqpR6lulkPIVohfF3oJ0D3Ay_XOCHWlHYkTg6VZsa0FDrPtfB2pG3TxTBPwI4IMj5uF_D3zrg51dCYKU1Gah71ujLaXRE5q9XF7oOknxiWQuWc7Ox8JP03lSx-DiVA"
// 	    },
// 	    { 
// 	      "header": { 
// 	        "alg": "A128KW",
// 	        "kid": "7"
// 	      },
// 	      "encrypted_key": "8diBP2aUUB_Jl5WxCuMJLN6HsppE3rhSjcecee0fBcwB31zbPAVejQ"
// 	    } 
// 	  ],
// 	  "iv": "JqahFKx5Z8SFT_LnkfOq0Q",
// 	  "ciphertext": "YcSdjlszsaY1ADcs4Vw85H_WoAqnkDIJaJsTkmCj05s",
// 	  "tag": "G3KF2CZ-DMhm0cqUbhJKMA"
// 	} 

// To decrypt, we don't need both recipient keys.  We can decrypt with one key or the other.
// The FindRecipient method can be used to find a particular recipient index.

// First, load the JWE..
$jwe2 = new CkJwe();
$success = $jwe2->LoadJwe($strJwe);
if ($success != true) {
    print $jwe2->lastErrorText() . "\n";
    exit;
}

// Let's say we have the AES key wrap key, and we know the "kid" equals "7".
$caseSensitive = false;
$recipientIndex = $jwe2->FindRecipient('kid','7',$caseSensitive);
if ($recipientIndex < 0) {
    print 'Unable to find recipient with kid=7' . "\n";
    exit;
}

// Set the AES wrap key for the recipient index.
$jwe2->SetWrappingKey($recipientIndex,$aesWrappingKey,'base64url');

// Decrypt
$originalPlaintext = $jwe2->decrypt($recipientIndex,'utf-8');
if ($jwe2->get_LastMethodSuccess() != true) {
    print $jwe2->lastErrorText() . "\n";
    exit;
}

print 'original text decrypted with AES key wrap key: ' . "\n";
print $originalPlaintext . "\n";

// Now, let's do the same with the RSA private key:
$recipientIndex = $jwe2->FindRecipient('kid','2011-04-29',$caseSensitive);
if ($recipientIndex < 0) {
    print 'Unable to find recipient with kid=2011-04-29' . "\n";
    exit;
}

// Set the RSA private key for the recipient index.
$jwe2->SetPrivateKey($recipientIndex,$rsaPrivKey);

// Decrypt
$originalPlaintext = $jwe2->decrypt($recipientIndex,'utf-8');
if ($jwe2->get_LastMethodSuccess() != true) {
    print $jwe2->lastErrorText() . "\n";
    exit;
}

print 'original text decrypted with RSA private key: ' . "\n";
print $originalPlaintext . "\n";

// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// It should also be possible to decrypt the JWE as shown in RFC 7516, Appendix A.4.7
// because it was produced using the same keys.

$sbJwe = new CkStringBuilder();
$sbJwe->Append('{');
$sbJwe->Append('\'protected\':');
$sbJwe->Append('\'eyJlbmMiOiJBMTI4Q0JDLUhTMjU2In0\',');
$sbJwe->Append('\'unprotected\':');
$sbJwe->Append('{\'jku\':\'https://server.example.com/keys.jwks\'},');
$sbJwe->Append('\'recipients\':[');
$sbJwe->Append('{\'header\':');
$sbJwe->Append('{\'alg\':\'RSA1_5\',\'kid\':\'2011-04-29\'},');
$sbJwe->Append('\'encrypted_key\':');
$sbJwe->Append('\'UGhIOguC7IuEvf_NPVaXsGMoLOmwvc1GyqlIKOK1nN94nHPoltGRhWhw7Zx0-');
$sbJwe->Append('kFm1NJn8LE9XShH59_i8J0PH5ZZyNfGy2xGdULU7sHNF6Gp2vPLgNZ__deLKx');
$sbJwe->Append('GHZ7PcHALUzoOegEI-8E66jX2E4zyJKx-YxzZIItRzC5hlRirb6Y5Cl_p-ko3');
$sbJwe->Append('YvkkysZIFNPccxRU7qve1WYPxqbb2Yw8kZqa2rMWI5ng8OtvzlV7elprCbuPh');
$sbJwe->Append('cCdZ6XDP0_F8rkXds2vE4X-ncOIM8hAYHHi29NX0mcKiRaD0-D-ljQTP-cFPg');
$sbJwe->Append('wCp6X-nZZd9OHBv-B3oWh2TbqmScqXMR4gp_A\'},');
$sbJwe->Append('{\'header\':');
$sbJwe->Append('{\'alg\':\'A128KW\',\'kid\':\'7\'},');
$sbJwe->Append('\'encrypted_key\':');
$sbJwe->Append('\'6KB707dM9YTIgHtLvtgWQ8mKwboJW3of9locizkDTHzBC2IlrT1oOQ\'}],');
$sbJwe->Append('\'iv\':');
$sbJwe->Append('\'AxY8DCtDaGlsbGljb3RoZQ\',');
$sbJwe->Append('\'ciphertext\':');
$sbJwe->Append('\'KDlTtXchhZTGufMYmOYGS4HffxPSUrfmqCHXaI9wOGY\',');
$sbJwe->Append('\'tag\':');
$sbJwe->Append('\'Mz-VPPyU4RlcuYv1IwIvzw\'');
$sbJwe->Append('}');

$success = $jwe2->LoadJweSb($sbJwe);
if ($success != true) {
    print $jwe2->lastErrorText() . "\n";
    exit;
}

// We can decrypt with either key.  Let's use the AES key wrap key...
$recipientIndex = $jwe2->FindRecipient('kid','7',$caseSensitive);
if ($recipientIndex < 0) {
    print 'Unable to find recipient with kid=7' . "\n";
    exit;
}

// Set the AES wrap key for the recipient index.
$jwe2->SetWrappingKey($recipientIndex,$aesWrappingKey,'base64url');

// Decrypt
$originalPlaintext = $jwe2->decrypt($recipientIndex,'utf-8');
if ($jwe2->get_LastMethodSuccess() != true) {
    print $jwe2->lastErrorText() . "\n";
    exit;
}

print 'original text decrypted from published JWE, with AES key wrap key: ' . "\n";
print $originalPlaintext . "\n";

// The output:

// original text decrypted with AES key wrap key: 
// Live long and prosper.
// original text decrypted with RSA private key: 
// Live long and prosper.
// original text decrypted from published JWE, with AES key wrap key: 
// Live long and prosper.

?>

 

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