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DH Key Exchange

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(VB.NET) Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange (DH)

Diffie-Hellman key exchange (DH) is a cryptographic protocol that allows two parties that have no prior knowledge of each other to jointly establish a shared secret key.

This example demonstrates how two parties (Alice and Bob) can compute an N-bit shared secret key without the key ever being transmitted.

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'  Create two separate instances of the DH object.
Dim dhBob As New Chilkat.Dh()
Dim dhAlice As New Chilkat.Dh()

Dim success As Boolean

'  Unlock the component once at program startup...
success = dhBob.UnlockComponent("Anything for 30-day trial")
If (success <> true) Then
    Exit Sub
End If

'  The DH algorithm begins with a large prime, P, and a generator, G.
'  These don't have to be secret, and they may be transmitted over an insecure channel.
'  The generator is a small integer and typically has the value 2 or 5.

'  The Chilkat DH component provides the ability to use known
'  "safe" primes, as well as a method to generate new safe primes.

'  This example will use a known safe prime.  Generating
'  new safe primes is a time-consuming CPU intensive task
'  and is normally done offline.

'  Bob will choose to use the 2nd of our 8 pre-chosen safe primes.
'  It is the Prime for the 2nd Oakley Group (RFC 2409) --
'  1024-bit MODP Group.  Generator is 2.
'  The prime is: 2^1024 - 2^960 - 1 + 2^64 * { [2^894 pi] + 129093 }

'  The computed shared secret will be equal to the size of the prime (in bits).
'  In this case the prime is 1024 bits, so the shared secret will be 128 bytes (128 * 8 = 1024).
'  However, the result is returned as an SSH1-encoded bignum in hex string format.
'  The SSH1-encoding prepends a 2-byte count, so the result is going  to be 2 bytes
'  longer: 130 bytes.  This results in a hex string that is 260 characters long (two chars
'  per byte for the hex encoding).

Dim p As String
Dim g As Long
'  Bob will now send P and G to Alice.
p = dhBob.P
g = dhBob.G

'  Alice calls SetPG to set P and G.  SetPG checks
'  the values to make sure it's a safe prime and will
'  return False if not.
success = dhAlice.SetPG(p,g)
If (success <> true) Then
    MsgBox("P is not a safe prime")
    Exit Sub
End If

'  Each side begins by generating an "E"
'  value.  The CreateE method has one argument: numBits.
'  It should be set to twice the size of the number of bits
'  in the session key.

'  Let's say we want to generate a 128-bit session key
'  for AES encryption.  The shared secret generated by the Diffie-Hellman
'  algorithm will be longer, so we'll hash the result to arrive at the
'  desired session key length.  However, the length of the session
'  key we'll utlimately produce determines the value that should be
'  passed to the CreateE method.

'  In this case, we'll be creating a 128-bit session key, so pass 256 to CreateE.
'  This setting is for security purposes only -- the value
'  passed to CreateE does not change the length of the shared secret
'  that is produced by Diffie-Hellman.
'  Also, there is no need to pass in a value larger
'  than 2 times the expected session key length.  It suffices to
'  pass exactly 2 times the session key length.

'  Bob generates a random E (which has the mathematical
'  properties required for DH).
Dim eBob As String
eBob = dhBob.CreateE(256)

'  Alice does the same:
Dim eAlice As String
eAlice = dhAlice.CreateE(256)

'  The "E" values are sent over the insecure channel.
'  Bob sends his "E" to Alice, and Alice sends her "E" to Bob.

'  Each side computes the shared secret by calling FindK.
'  "K" is the shared-secret.

Dim kBob As String
Dim kAlice As String

'  Bob computes the shared secret from Alice's "E":
kBob = dhBob.FindK(eAlice)

'  Alice computes the shared secret from Bob's "E":
kAlice = dhAlice.FindK(eBob)

'  Amazingly, kBob and kAlice are identical and the expected
'  length (260 characters).  The strings contain the hex encoded bytes of
'  our shared secret:
TextBox1.Text = TextBox1.Text & "Bob's shared secret:" & vbCrLf
TextBox1.Text = TextBox1.Text & kBob & vbCrLf
TextBox1.Text = TextBox1.Text & "Alice's shared secret (should be equal to Bob's)" & vbCrLf
TextBox1.Text = TextBox1.Text & kAlice & vbCrLf

'  To arrive at a 128-bit session key for AES encryption, Bob and Alice should
'  both transform the raw shared secret using a hash algorithm that produces
'  the size of session key desired.   MD5 produces a 16-byte (128-bit) result, so
'  this is a good choice for 128-bit AES.

'  Here's how you would use Chilkat Crypt (a separate Chilkat component) to
'  produce the session key:
Dim crypt As New Chilkat.Crypt2()
success = crypt.UnlockComponent("Anything for 30-day trial.")
If (success <> true) Then
    Exit Sub
End If

crypt.EncodingMode = "hex"
crypt.HashAlgorithm = "md5"

Dim sessionKey As String
sessionKey = crypt.HashStringENC(kBob)

TextBox1.Text = TextBox1.Text & "128-bit Session Key:" & vbCrLf
TextBox1.Text = TextBox1.Text & sessionKey & vbCrLf

'  Encrypt something...
crypt.CryptAlgorithm = "aes"
crypt.KeyLength = 128
crypt.CipherMode = "cbc"

'  Use an IV that is the MD5 hash of the session key...
Dim iv As String
iv = crypt.HashStringENC(sessionKey)

'  AES uses a 16-byte IV:
TextBox1.Text = TextBox1.Text & "Initialization Vector:" & vbCrLf
TextBox1.Text = TextBox1.Text & iv & vbCrLf


'  Encrypt some text:
Dim cipherText64 As String

crypt.EncodingMode = "base64"
cipherText64 = crypt.EncryptStringENC("The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog")
TextBox1.Text = TextBox1.Text & cipherText64 & vbCrLf

Dim plainText As String
plainText = crypt.DecryptStringENC(cipherText64)

TextBox1.Text = TextBox1.Text & plainText & vbCrLf

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